PROPHECY IN THE OLD TESTAMENT:
I. CONCERNING THE GENTILES
Old Testament prophecy relative to the Gentiles begins with the allotment of the portion of the sons of Noah (Gen 9:25-27), which prediction has been fulfilled to the present hour.
Another extensive Gentile prophecy of the Old Testament concerns the judgments of God upon the nations surrounding Israel - Babylon and Chaldea (Isa 13:1-22; 14:18-27; Jer 50:1 to 51:64), Moab (Isa 15:1-9; 16:1-14; Jer 48:1-4), Damaseus (Isa 17:1-14; Jer 49:23-27), Egypt (Isa 19:1-25; Jer 46:2-28), Philistia and Tyre (Isa 23:1-18; Jer 47:1-7), Edom (Jer 49:7-22) Ammon (Jer 49:1-6), Elam (Jer 49:34-39) - which likewise have largely been fulfilled,(see, also, Amo 1:1-15).
Additional Gentile prophecy is recorded in the Old Testament as to world-ruling monarchies and their authority during the "times of the Gentiles" (Luk 21:24). This succession of governments was revealed to Daniel (Dan 2:37-45; 7:1-14) and subsequent history has proven these kingdoms to have been Babylon, Media-Persia, Greece and Rome.
Old Testament prophecy also anticipates the final judgment of the Gentile nations (Joe 3:2-16; Zep 3:8). However, Old Testament prophecy gives assurance that the Gentiles will come into great blessing in the kingdom age (Isa 11:10; 42:1, 6; 49:6, 22; 60:3; 62:2).
II. CONCERNING ISRAEL'S EARLY HISTORY
This group of predicted events which began with Abraham covers Israel's life both in the land and in bondage, and the detailed predictions are found in the Pentateuch and the Books of history. All of these prophecies have been fulfilled and in the most literal manner.
Some of these predictions are: (a) Israel's Egyptian bondage and release (Gen 15:13, 14); (b) The character and destiny of Jacob's sons (Gen 49:1-28); (c) Israel in the land following the Egyptian bondage (Deu 4:26-30; 31:14-23); (d) Israel's three dispossessions of the land (Gen 15:13, 14, 16; Jer 25:11, 12; Deu 28:62-67. See, also, Psa 106:1-48; Deu 30:1-3; Lev 26:3-46; Neh 1:8; Jer 9:16; 18:15-17; Eze 12:14, 15; 20:23; 22:15; James 1:1).
III. CONCERNING THE NATION ISRAEL
Beginning with the Abrahamic covenant (Gen 12:1-4; 13:1b17; 15:1-7; 17:1-8), and continuing throughout the Old Testament there is prediction concerning the chosen earthly people of God. To them has been promised: a national entity (Jer 31:36), a land (Gen 13:15), a throne (2Sa 7:16; Psa 89:36), a King (Jer 33:21), and a kingdom (Dan 7:14). All of these divine blessings are endless in their duration; yet reservation, is made whereby these blessings may be interrupted as a chastisement upon the nation, but never can they be abrogated. The importance of the chosen people in the reckoning of God and the extent of the Scriptures bearing upon their past, present, and future, is disclosed when it is seen that all Scripture from Gen 12:1 to the end of Malachi relates to them directly or indirectly. As to their future, this people will, according to prophecy, take the leading place among all the peoples of the earth, planted forever upon their own land under the gracious reign of David's Greater Son sitting on David's throne.
IV. CONCERNING THE LAST DISPERSION AND GATHERING OF ISRAEL.
By the Assyrian captivity of the Northern Kingdom and the Babylonian captivity of the Southern Kingdom and as a national punishment for sin, the whole house of Israel was taken from off the land and in due time was scattered among the nations of the earth. This was in fulfillment of multiplied prophecies (Lev 26:32-39; Deu 28:63-68; Psa 44:11; Neh 1:8; Jer 9:16; 18:15-17; Eze 12:14, 15; 20:23; 22:15; Jam 1:1) .
In no case would Israel's national entity be lost even through centuries of dispersion (Jer 31:36; Mat 24:34). They refused the divine offer and provision for their regathering and kingdom glory which was made by their Messiah at His first advent (Mat 23:37-39), and, as at Kadesh-barnea where their wilderness experience was extended (Num 14:1-45), their chastisement was continued, and will be continued until He comes again. At that time He will regather His people into their own land and cause them to enter into the glory and blessedness of every covenant promise of Jehovah concerning them (Deu 30:1-10; Isa 11:11, 12; Jer 23:3-8; Eze 37:21-25; Mat 24:31).
V. CONCERNING THE ADVENT OF MESSIAH
From 1Pe 1:10, 11 it is clear that the prophets of the Old Testament were unable to distinguish two advents of the Messiah. So perfectly was the present age a secret in the counsels of God that, to the prophets, these events which were fulfilled at His first coming and those which are yet to be fulfilled at His second coming were in no way separated as to the time of their fulfillment. Isa 61:1, 2 is an illustration of this. When reading this passage in the synagogue of Capernaum, Christ ceased abruptly when He had concluded the record of those features which were predicted for His first advent (Luk 4:19-21), making no mention of the remaining features which are to be fulfilled when He comes again. In like manner, the Angel Gabriel, when anticipating the ministry of Christ, combined as in one the undertakings which belong to both the first and the second advents (Luk 1:31-33). According to Old Testament prophecy, Christ was to come both as a sacrificial, unresisting Lamb (Isa 53:1-12), and as the conquering and glorious Lion of the tribe of Judah (Isa 11:1-12; Jer 23:5, 6). Considering these two extensive lines of prediction, there is little wonder that there was perplexity in the minds of the Old Testament prophets as to the "manner of time" when all this would be fulfilled (1Pe 1:10, 11).
Prophecy stipulated that the Messiah must be of the tribe of Judah (Gen 49:10), of the house of David (Isa 11:1; Jer 33:21), born of a virgin (Isa 7:14), in Bethlehem of Judea (Mic 5:2), that He must die a sacrificial death (Isa 53:1-12), by crucifixion (Psa 22:1-21), rise again from the dead (Psa 16:8-11), and come to earth the second time (Deu 30:3) on the clouds of Heaven (Dan 7:13). Jesus of Nazareth has fulfilled, and will fulfill, every requirement of prophecy concerning the Messiah as no other claimant can ever do.
VI. CONCERNING THE TRIBULATION
Closely related to the present age-long chastisement of Israel, Old Testament prophecy anticipates a time of unprecedented tribulation in the earth (Deu 4:29, 30; Psa 2:5; Isa 24:16-20; Jer 30:4-7; Dan 12:1). Though this line of prediction is greatly enlarged in the New Testament, the Old Testament prophecy indicates the one essential feature of this period. It is said to be "the time of Jacob's trouble" (Jer 30:4-7), and comes to that nation as the consummation of their sufferings at the hand of Jehovah for their sins.
VII. CONCERNING THE MESSIANIC KINGDOM AND THE DAY OF THE LORD
In respect to the amount of the Scriptures involved, there is no theme of Old Testament prophecy comparable with that of the Messianic kingdom. Lying beyond all the predicted chastisements that are to fall on Israel is the glory which will be theirs when regathered into their own land, with unmeasured spiritual blessings under the glorious reign of their Messiah-King. This vision was given to all the prophets and as certainly and literally as Israel, in fulfillment of prophecy, was removed from the land and caused to suffer during these many centuries, so certainly and literally will she be restored to marvelous blessings in a redeemed and glorified earth (Isa 11:1-16; 12:1-6; 24:22-27:13; 35:1-10; 52:12; 54:1-55:13; 59:20-66:24; Jer 23:3-8; 31:1-40; 32:37-41; 33:1-26; Eze 34:11-31; 36:32-38; 37:1-28; 40:1-48:35; Dan 2:44, 45; 7:14; Hos 3:4, 5; 13:9-l4:9; Joe 2:28-3:21; Amo 9:11-15; Zep 3:14-20; Zec 8:1-23; 14:9-21).
Old Testament predictions concerning the kingdom are often a part of the predictions concerning the return of the King and when these two themes are combined into one, it is termed The Day of the Lord, which phrase refers to that lengthened period extending from the second coming of Christ and the accompanying judgments in the earth, to the end of His millennial reign (Isa 2:10-22; Zec 14:1-21).
Because of the fact that none of the great prophecies were fulfilled in the days covered by the Old Testament, that portion of the Bible is in itself incomplete and therefore to that extent disappointing. By the second coming of Christ who is the fulfiller of her prophecies (Mat 5:17), the "consolation" of Israel is to be realized (Luk 2:25).